Menopause is not a problem. Worldwide, between the ages of 45-55 it indicated that menopausal age. But what effect does the inevitable end of women have on menopause?
What does menopause mean?
Menopause is a period of life just like infancy, adolescence and sexual maturity. During the menopause, the amount of follicles in the ovaries (ovaries) decreases and therefore estrogen production decreases. Over time, estrogen production is discontinued and the ovaries become smaller. As a result, the menstrual cycle is interrupted and reproductive ability is lost. The word menopause is derived from the Greek word mens (moon) and pause. The World Health Organization defines menopause as a permanent cessation of the menstrual cycle due to the loss of ovarian activity.
Menopause is divided into 3 periods
Premenopause: It covers the period from the first symptoms to menopause. Follicular activity in the ovaries slows down. Periods become irregular. This process may take several months or years.
Menopause: The last menstruation.
Postmenopause: It covers 6-8 years from menopause to old age. For a woman to be postmenopausal, she has not had menstruation for 12 months.
Which disorders are seen in premenopausal period?
Menstrual irregularities, reduction in ovulation, flushes, excessive sweating, depressive mood, inability to sleep, tension, irritability, increased appetite, difficulty concentrating, flushing of the face, increased pulse, headache, dizziness, hot flashes, lack of self-confidence, forgetfulness, carelessness, fatigue, decreased sexual desire.
What are the symptoms after it?
Symptoms of premenopause persist. After long-term estrogen deficiency, atrophy of the genital organs, ie shrinkage is seen. The uterus, vagina and vulva and urethra shrink. Depending on this, frequent urination, constipation, vulva itching, painful sexual intercourse, uterine sagging, urinary incontinence, sagging in the bladder, breech sagging may be.
There are estrogen receptors in the skin, hair follicles and sweat glands. Postmenopausal changes occur accordingly. The skin becomes thinner and the amount of collagen decreases. The amount of hair and hair is reduced. The skin dries, loses its elasticity and delayed wound healing. Thick hairs may appear on the chin, lips and chest. The amount of hair is reduced in the armpit and genital area.
During this period dry mouth, bad taste in the mouth and gum disease may be. Constipation and hemorrhoids are common. Reflux and gallstones are also common.
The risk of developing heart disease in women increases with menopause. While estrogen is a hormone that reduces the risk of coronary heart disease, the risk of coronary heart disease increases with estrogen reduction along with menopause. Cholesterol increases and High blood pressure may occur. Arteriosclerosis is seen.
Another important problem with it is osteoporosis. Osteoporosis invites fractures as a result of decreased bone mineral density. Women with menopause lose 3-4 percent of their bone masses each year. Metabolic rate slows down and weight gain is seen in women. Sexual reluctance shows up.
What should be the nutrition in menopause?
Due to estrogen deficiency, the metabolic rate slows down and rapid weight gain begins. To prevent osteoporosis, 1500 mg of calcium should be taken daily. Vitamin E can prevent hot flashes and fatigue. Vitamin D should be kept at normal levels. Salt intake should be restricted. Regular exercise during menopause is important.
Things to do
Menopause during the common hot flashes against light and should be worn in layers. Thus, the clothes can be reduced in case of hot flashes.
It is beneficial to reduce spices and caffeine and to avoid smoking and alcohol.
To prevent osteoporosis, it is important to observe daily calcium intake and exercise regularly. Your doctor may apply hormone replacement therapy if he or she considers it appropriate.